Spotted Wing Drosophila (Somali)

W.D. Hutchison iyo Suzanne Wold-Burkness
Laanta barashada Cayayaan ee Jaamacada Minnesota 

Horudhac

SWD femaleMuuqaal 1. SWD diqsi dhagi ah oo miro madow ku dhagan (S. Wold-Burkness, U of MN).


Dulinka la yiraa Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD),
Drosophila suzukii, waa cayayaan dulin ah oo gala dhafaruurta, mareerka, askaaxda, canabka iyo khudrada. SWD waxaa u dhashay qaarada Aasiya waxaana markii ugu horeeyey laga helay gobolka California sannadkii 2008. Waxa uuna ku faaftay nawaaxiyada khudaartu ka baxdo ee wadanka U.S. Bishii in Augusto ee sannadkii 2012, SWD waxaa laga helay Degmooyinka Ramsey, Hennepin, Anoka, iyo Olmsted ee gobolka Minnesota. Ilaa iyo 2012, SWD Minnesota waxaana laga helay degmooyin badan oo gobolka ah. Ilaa hada, dalagyada inta badan wax uu geystay waxa weeye dhafaruurta, mareerka, laakiin, askaaxda, canbaha iyo raqayga duurka ka baxa ayaa iyana laga helay oo uu galay.


Baay’oolijiga

SWD shinka dhameystaa waxa ay aad ugu dhow yihiin diqsiyada kale ee khalka ee laga yaabo in aad ku aragto marmarka qaarkood iyagoo ku xoonsan mooska aadka u bislaada ee miiska jikadaada kuwaa ooo inta badan loogu yeero diqsiyada khudrada. Diqsiyadaasi inta badan waxa ay quutaan khudrada aadka u bislaata ama sii xumaanaysa, laakiin SWD waxa ay quudan kartaa khudrada caafimaadka qabta ee is-haysa ee sii bislaanaysa. SWD dhadiga ahi waxa ay leedahay, rimay girgiro leh (oo loo isticmaalo ugxan dhalida) oo daloolin karta maqaarka noocyo badan oo kala duwan oo miraha mareerka ah, kuna dhali kartaa 3 ama in ka badan oo ukxaan ah mir walba ooo mareer ah, taasoo ku sameyn karta kuwa yaryar oo badan oo aan wali shin dhamaysan (diqsiyo cad-cad) mirkiiba. Kuwaa aan shinka dhamaysani waxay miraha khudrada ku dhalisaa meelo mad-madow oo godod ah khudrada. Kuwaa aan shinka dhamaysani kolkaa waa ay ka baxaan khudrada si ay u xuub dilaacsadaan ha dhowna u noqdaan kuwo gaamuray. Hal jiil, ukun ilaa iyo gaamurid, waxaa dhici karta in ay qaadato 7-10 maalmood, iyadoo hadba ku xiran heerkulka. Sidaa awgeed, jiilal badan oo  SWD ah ayaa dhici karta inay sameysmaan hal sanno gudahood, iyadoo tiradooduna ay sii kordhayso xilliga kuleylaha ah oo dhan. Marxalada SWD ee xilliga qaboobaha ee kuwa gaamuray iyo awoodooda ay uga badbaadi karaan qabowga Minnesota na ilaa hada lama yaqaan. 

swd maleMuuqaal 2. Diqsi SWD oo lab ah iyo garbahiisa uu caan ka ku yahay (Sheila Fitzpatrick, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Center, Agassiz).
SWD femaleMuuqaal 3. Diqsi SWD oo dhadig ah (eeg kuma laha calaamdo garbaha), oo si hoose loo arkayo rimaygeeda leh geeso girgira leh, (Sheila Fitzpatrick, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Pacific Agri-Food Research Center, Agassiz).


Khasaaraha

SWD waxa ay noqotay mid ka mid ah dulinada ugu khasaaraha badan dulinada geedaha gala ee lagu arkay Minnesota. sidii aan horey u sheegnay, SWD ga aan wali xuub dilaacsani waxa ay cuntaa khudrada caafimaadka qabta ee is haysata ee sii bislaanaysa. Gaar ahaan, SWD waxa ay quudataa khudrada haraga jilicsan, sida miraha mareerka, askaaxda, canbaha, raqayga iyo murcoodka.  Waa suurto gal in astaamaha in dulan galay dalaga aan la garan ilaa iyo laga goosanayo iyo in marmarka qaarkood aan la ogaan ilaa iyo inta khudradu ka galayso gacanta macaamiisha. Waxaa iyana raac khatarta uu dulinku tooska u keeno, in cunidaa dulinku uu cunayo dulinku ay ka dhigto dallaga mid u nugul in ay galaan cayayaano kale iyo bakteeriyaba.

swd damageMuuqaal 4. Miro khasaare gaaray; mirahu waxa ay noqdaan kuwa qoyan ka dibna waa ay soo dhacaan (S. Wold-Burkness, U of MN).
swd larvaeMuuqaal 5. Hal mir oo mucanyood ah ayaa waxaa laga dhex helay kuwa badan oo ugxan SWD ah (S. Wold-Burkness, U of MN).

Maareynta

Noocyada nuguli inta badan waxa ay noqdaan kuwo u nugul gelida SWD marka hore oo ay midabka yeeshaan ilaa iyo inta soo go’ida. SWD waxay sidoo kale ugxan ku dhali kartaa khudrada aadka u bislaata, tasoo ka dhigta nadiifinta dulinkan wax muhiim ah. Waqtiga nuglaanta, oo ah kolka bislaanshaha, waa kolka ay tahay in wixii fal maaareyn ah ee la qaadayo xooga la saaro. Hadii diqsiyada SWD laga helo dabinka, ama ugxan la arko xiliga nuglaanta, wixii la heli karo ee maareyn ahi kolkaa waxa ay ku xirnaan dhowr arrimood oo ay ku jiraan heerka gelida, talaabooyinka maareynta ah  (e.g. organic or conventional), iyo waqtiga la xiriira waqtiga dalagu soo go’ayo. Iminka ma jiraan wax dhaqaale ku saleyn ah oo loo abuuray SWD, sidaa awgeed qaab taxadar leh oo wax looga qaban karaa waa in loo isticmaalo diqsi qabte beertaada, ama macluumaad dabe nawaaxiga SWD si ay u muujiyaan wixii raad hore ee jira si kolkaa loo qaado talaabooyin ka hortag ah hadii SWD uu jiro mirahuna ay marayaan marxaladaha nuglaanta. Hadii khudradu ay bislaanayso ama bislaatay diqsiyo SWD ah la qabtay, kolkaa beeralaydu waa in ay: 1) dhaqan geliyaan xakameyn hadii ay suuto gal tahay, iyo 2) Ay ilaaliyaan khudrada ilaa iyo inta ay soo go’ayso iyagoo isticmaalaya sun dulin disha oo macruuf ah. 

La socodka

swd trapMuuqaal 6. Dabaha la soo gato ee lagu dabo SWD. (S. Wold-Burkness, U of MN).

Waxaa lama huraan u ah dhaqan-gelinta mashruuca Habka Maareynta Isku Xiran (IPM) ee SWD waa u qaabeynta mashruuc la socod ah oo taabo gal ah beertaada. La socodku waa in la sameeyaa kolka ubaxu soo baxo ilaa iyo dhamaadka soo go’ida. Tani waxa ay u ogolaataa qofka beerta leh in uu barto bilowga iyo dhamaadka falalka diqsiga, in kastoo waqtiga ugu mihiimsan in lala socdaa uu yahay marka hor ee midabka khudradu uu bilaabo in uu sameysmo ilaa iyo inta dalaga la goosanayo. Markani waa marka ay khudradu u nugushahay in SWD uu galo.

Diqsiyada gaamuray ee SWD waxaa la dabi karaa iyadoo la isticmaalayo qalab dabid ah oo la soo gato iyo mid guriga lagu sameysto. Kan la soo gataa waa mid ur leh (isticmaala biyo + saabuun) iyo khal (isticmaala canab, khalka tufaaxa), iyadoo labadaba loo isticmaalayo ku dagid iyo ku harqin, waxaana laga heli karaa Great Lakes IPM. Tilmaamaha sida loo sameysto dabe waxaa laga heli karaa barta Oregon State University’s Extension page.  

Dabayaasha waa in la suro meesha khudradu taal, dhinaca hooska leh ee marada iyadoo la istcimaalayo fiilo kor uga lifaaqan dabaha. (Muuqaal. 4). Hubi in dabaha aysan u dhaweyn wax geedo ah uuna leeyahay godad af banaan si kolkaa SWD du ay u geli karto dabaha. 

Dabayaasha waa in laga baaraa 1-2 goor/asbuucii diqsiyada SWD – ama intaa ka badan hadii khudrada la goosan karo kolkaa, iyadoo la eegayo dabaha jaalaha ee koolaha leh (hadii la isticmaalay) iyo dareeraha wax lagu harqiyo. Dareeraha cusubi ha noqdo biyo ama khal eh waa la in la ag dhigaa dabaha mar kasta oo la eegana kii hore waa in meel ka dheer dabaha lagu qubaa. Qabashada SWD waa in meel lagu qoraa si loo diiwaan geliyo, xiliyada xarakada diqsiyada iyo marxalada ku aadan waqtigaa, bislaanta khudrada waa in iyana la qoraa.  


Xakameynta Tirada

Fallen fruitMuuqaal 7. Khudrad dhulka ku soo dhacday taasoo noqon karta il uu dib ugu dhasho SWD (S. Wold-Burkness, U of MN).

Dhowr hab ayaa la isticmaali karaa oo ay ku jiraan in daliga beerta la gooyo waqtigii loogu tala galay iyo in looga gooyo beerta miraha siyaadada u bislaada si si ugu dhaqso badan si loo yareeyo ukun dhala SWD iyo xuub dilaacida beeralayda nawaaxiyo kale oo wadanka ka mid ahi waxa ay u direen dadka kala gura miraha oo hal weel ku gura miraha fiican,  weel kalena ku gura wixii miro ah ee aad u bislaada kuwaa oo la daadiyo. Habkani waxaa laga yaabaa in uu si fiican ugu shaqeeyo beeraha iska yar laakiin uusan si fiican ugu shaqeyn beeraha waaweyn ee ganacsiyada waaweyni ay leeyihiin.  Aakhirka in laga nadiifiyo lagana qaado miraha ugu dambeeya duurka waxaa laga yaabaa in ay fiican tahay,  laakiin talaabadani wali lama qiimeyn waxayna u badan tahay in ay ku xiran tahay baaxada hawl-galada. Ka xaarida dhirta uu dulinku geli karo ee ka baxda beeraha agagaarkeeda waa ay gargaari karaan dulinta SWD da, waana wax kale oo la sameyn karo laakiin wali lama tijaabin. Geedaha dulinku geli karo ee duurka ka baxa waxaa ku jira raqayga, dhafaruurta askaaxda iyo hohobta.

Dhawaan cilmi-baaris lagu sameeyey gobolka Oregon waxa ay is-barbar dhigtay siyaabo badan oo lagu kodhin karo dilida miraha uu ku dhashay dulinka SWD, macnaha sida ugu fiican oo loo asturi karo khudrada dulinka galay. Labo hab oo si fiican ugu shaqeeyey ciribtirka SWD waxay aheeyeen 1. in khudrada xumaatay lagu guro gudaha bac madow oo balaastiko, iyo in 2. qoraxayn, iyadoo bac cad oo 1-2 ml ah la kor dhigayo khudrada oo meel qorax ah taal dhinacyada laga xirayo iyadoo la isticmaalayo carro. Ogaysiis muhiim ah: duugida la duugayo uun khudrada dulinku galay ma aha taabo gal. Qaboojinta (sida furinjiyeer ah 37-39F) khudrada markiiba kolka la soo go’do ka dib waxaa laga yaabaa in ay faa’iido leedahay ka hor tagta dilaacida ukunta, iyo/ama ay waabiso koritaanka ugxaanta taasoo keenaysa in uxkantu ay dhimato (Marwa et al. 2017). 


U diidida Soo gelidaba 

High tunnelMuuqaal 8. Balaastiinka daboolaya.

Beeralayda meelaha waqooyiga ah ee cimilada qaboobi waxa ay hada bilaabeen in ay isticmaalaan godad si ay u sii dheereeyaan xilliga ayna u sii hagaajiyaan dalaga iyo tayada khudrada.  Istcmaalaankan godadka dhaadheeri waxaa kaloo laga yaabaa in ay noqdaan aalad lagu xakamayn karo cayayaanka isagoo u diidaya in cayayaanka dulinka ahi meesha soo galo. Sannadkii 2015, godad lagu dadoolay baco ama shabaq khafiif ah ayaa loo tijaabiyey in lagu bedelo sunta dulinka lagu dilo si looga ilaaliyo miraha MN ka soo go’a xiliga dayrta in uu ku dhasho dulinka SWD gu. (Rogers et al. 2016). Miraha ku jira godadka lagu dahaaray bacahu waxaa ku dhashay dulinka yar oo aan badnayn oo ah SWD qiyaastii 2% miraha, marka la barbar dhigo godadka shabaqa la dul-saaray qiyaastii 35%, goobaha dibada ah ee sunta lagu buufiyeyna waxaa ku dhashay qiyaastii 60% miraha dulin,  goobaha dibada ah ee aan waxba lagu sameyna waxaa ku dhashay qiyaastii 81% miraha waxaa galay dulin (Rogers et al. 2016). Macluumaadka hawadu waxa ay sheegayaan in heerka heer-kulka iyo huurka godadka bacaha lagu daboolay ay inta badan ka hooseeyeen ama ka koreeyaaan heerarka heer-kulka iyo huurka ee ku haboon koritaanka, galmada iyo/ama ukun dhalka ee dulinka SDW. Xaaladahaa heerarka haboon ka hooseeyaa waxaa laga yaabaa in ay xadido kordhida guud ee tirada dulinka marka la bar-bardhigo godadka shabaqa lagu dahaaray. Sidaa awgeed, wax ka bedelida iyo saarida labaduba, waxaa laga yaabaa in ay taabo gal yihiin ayna is-caawiyaan oo ay noqdaan xeelado lagu maareeyo dulin galida miraha soo go’a xilliga dayrta waxay kaloo noqon karaan kuwa lagu bedelo sunta cayayaanka lagu dilo, gaar ahaan beeraha yar yar iyo beer falashada orgaaniga ah. 


Sun ku Xakameynta

applying insecticideMuuqaal 9. Beeraale u isticmaalay buufinta sunta xoogan si uu uga dilo murcoodkiisa dulinka (S. Wold-Burkness, U of MN).

Kolka si quman loo adeegsado, sunta dulinku waxa ay noqon karaa mid taabo gal ah, laakiin, adeegsiyada sunta dulinku waa khasab in ay sidoo kale la socdaan beelaha oo goosto xiligii la rabo in la goosto oo ah inta u dhaxeeysa buufinta sunta, iyo adeecin hoose oo la adeecayo waqtiyada u dhaxeeya dib- gelida (REI) iyo soo goosiga ka hor (PHI) mar kasta oo sunta la istcimaalayo waa khasab in la eego (eeg shaxanka hoose). Marka la eego in laga yaabo in tirada dulinka SWD ay degdeg u badato, maareeyn xoogan ayaa loo baahan yahay ilaa iyo inta goosiga miraha beerahu ay ka dhamaanayso. Murcood kasta waxa aanu ku talinaa in loo dhaxeeysiiyo xiliga buufinta sunta 5-shan-shan cisho, hadii ay suurto gal tahayna  (7-cisho waa in ay noqotaa mudadda ugu badan ee la ogolaadaa), kolka ugu horeeysa ee miraha geedka mareerku uu midabkiisu is-bedelo ayaa ah wax cadeynaysa in diqsi ku jiro miraha. Marka kasta oo sunta la buufiyo, heerka ugu sareeya/higtarka waa in la isticmaalo, iyadoo inta ugu sareeysa ee ugu badan loo isticmaalayo marada dahaarka ah (sida >25-40 galan oo biyo ah/ac), tusaale ahaan, isticmaalka buufinada hawada ah ee balaaran si loo sii hagaajiyo meel walba gaarida.  Miraha murcoodka, tani inta badan waxay sii tahay uun asal ahaan mid wareeg ah oo ah aalada Mustang Maxx, Malathion iyo wakiil (ama Aaminid, beeralayda beerta orgaaniga). Kala bed-bedelida sun dulinku iyana waa lama huraan si loo yareeyo khatarta ah in dulinka SWD uu la qabsado sunta oo ay aakhirka wax ka tari waydo*. Wixii akhbaar ah ee cusub ee sunta dulinka ah fadlan ka eeg “Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide”. Oo aah shaxan la cusboonaysiiyo sanand walba. Hagahan waxaa soo saara UMN Extension iyo Khibredlayaasha la Shaqeynaya Gobolada (Midwest state Extension Specialists). 

Insecticides available


*Ogaysiis ku saabsan Maareynta La Qabsiga Dulinka ee Sunta lagu Buufiyo 

In ay dhacdo in dulinka SWD sunta lagu buufinayo uu la qabsado oo ay wax ka tari waydaa waa walac jira waayo degdeg ku korida jil walba oo diqsiyaal ahi iyo guud ahaan u jenjeerida diqisyada Drosophila ay u janjeeraan in ay yeeshaan caabi ay isaga caabiyaan sunta lagu buufiyo. Intaa waxaa dheer, maadaama in badan oo sun ah la isticmaalo si loo maareeyo dulinada, kordhida ay sun badani soo gaarayso dulinka SWD waxa ay keeni kartaa inuu si degdeg ah uu diqsigu ula qabsado sunta lagu dilayo. Mid ka mid ah jidadka ugu taabo galsan ee lagu yareyn karo in dulinku la qabsado sunta lagu buufiyaa waa in la isku bed-bedelo noocyada sunta la isticmaalayo. arrintan waxaa la sameyn karaa iyadoo kolka la dooranayo sunta la isticmaalayo la tix gelyo in noocyo badan oo sun ah la doorto in la istcimaalo. Beeralaydu caadiga wax u beertaa waa in ay isku bed-bedelaan noocyada organophosphate (Malathion), pyrethroid (Brigade, Mustang Maxx), iyo spinosyn (Entrust) ama spinetoram (Delegate) kolka ay sunta ku buufinayaan beerahooda oo dhan sanada oo dhan. Beeralada orgaaniga beertaa waxa ay ku kooban yihin inay isticmaalaan Entrust, Pyganic, iyo Grandevo WDG. Grandevo waa mid cusub oo laga sameeyey bakteeriya waxaana lagu ogaaday in ay si tafa-tiran wax uga qabato dulinka SWD kolka la eego dhawaan tijaabooyin lagu sameeyey Jaamacada Michigan State. Dhibka hada jiraa waxaa weeye in laga helo meel laga gato suntan gobolka Minnesota.

Qaar ka mid ah sunta dulinka disha waxa ku dul qoran isku-bed-bedelida noocyada sunta si la isaga dhowro in dulinlu la qabsado sunta. Tusaale ahaan, ka dib kollkii labo goor lagu buufiyey sun ay ku jirtay spinosyn- sida Entrust ama Delegate, beeralaydu waxxa ay ku bedelaan suntaa nooc kale oo sunta cayayaanka ah. Maareynta la qabsigu waa ay ku rafaadaan beeralayda orgaaniga ee haysta uun dhowr sumood oo la ogol yahay oo ay kala dooran karaan oo taabo gal ku ah dilida dulanka SWD.


Kala xulashada Orgaaniga

Beeralayda beerata khuddrada orgaaniga ah waa inay la socdaan in sunaha lagu xakameeyo dulinka ee ay heli karaan iyagu inta badan in ay yihiin kuwo aan taabo gal u ahayn sida ay taabo galka u yihiin kuwa ay isticmaalaan beeralayda kale kolka ay noqoto dilida dulinka SWD, hase yeeshee, waayo-aragnimo laga kororsaday galbeedka wadanka iyo gobolka Michigan ayaa waxa ay muujiyeen in SWD laga xakamaeyn karo beeraha orgaaniga ah iyadoo la adeegsanayo habka il-ku hayn ah oo aad wax u faaqida iyo iyadoo sunta lagu buufinayo waqtigii la rabay hadii diqsiga lagu arko beerta, iyo hadii waqtiga u dhaxeeya waqtiyada sunta lagu buufinayo beerta la soo yareeyo. Sidoo kale si aad u weyn ayey muhiim u tahay in la dhaqan geliyo xakameynta dulinka ah si loo yareeyo guud ahaanba heer tirada dulinka. Taa waxaa ku jirta jarida si loo faydo daaha si loo sii  hagaajiyo inta sunta la buufinayaa ay gaarayso, iyo hubinta la hubinayo in miraha la soo gooyo waqtigii loo qabtay in la soo gooyo. Qoraal 2016 la soo saartay oo ah waxa ay kala xulan karaan beeralayda orgaanigu ayaa isna waxaa laga heli karaa Michigan State.


Tixraacyada kale ee la Xiriira  

Marwa F. K. A., D. A. Kraus, and H. J. Burrack. 2017. Effects of postharvest cold storage on the development and survival of immature Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in artificial diet and fruit. J. Econ. Entomol. 110(1): 87–93. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tow289

Purdue Extension. Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide. Retrieved from: https://ag.purdue.edu/hla/hort/pages/sfg_sprayguide.aspx

Rogers, M. A., E. C. Burkness, and W. D. Hutchison. 2016. Evaluation of covered tunnels for management of Drosophila suzukii in fall-bearing red raspberries. Journal of Pest Science https://doi.org/10.1007/s10340-016-0731-1.

Leach, H. M. J. Grieshop, and R. Isaacs. 2016. Integrated Strategies for Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila in Organic Small Fruit Production. Michigan State University.

Oregon State University. Spotted Wing Drosophila Traps – Monitoring Adult Flight. http://extension.oregonstate.edu/douglas/sites/default/files/documents/hort/2010/spotted_wing_drosophila_traps_osuviticulture1.pdf