Diqsiga miraha Mareerka gala (Somali)

Suzanne Wold-Burkness iyo W.D. Hutchison
Laanta barashada Cayayaan ee Jaamacada Minnesota 

Horudhac

Blueberry Maggot AdultMuuqaal 1. Diqsiga miraha mareerka (Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural Research Service, bugwood.org).

Diqsiga miraha galaa, (Rhagoletis mendax) waa cayayaan dhireed ka mid ah nooca (Vaccinum genus), oo gala xataa miraha mareerka ee ganacsi ahaanta loo beerto. Diqsiga miraha mareerku waxa uu quutaa iniinyaha miraha mareerka ku jira taaso keenta miro aan la suuq geyn karin. Nasiib wanaag, in kastoo uu ka soo askumay diqsiga miraha mareerku Waqooyiga Mareykanka, diqsiga miraha mareerka gala wali lagama helin gobolka Minnesota. Hase yeeshee sannadkii 2016 waxaa la xaqiijiyey in laga helay labo degmo oo ku taal Bartamaha Gobolka Wisconsin. Maadaama uu sii wado faafid, beeralayda miraha mareerka ee gobolka Minnesota waa ay ogsoon yihiin cayayaankan iyo in laga yaabo in uu ku soo faafo gobolka Minnesota.


Baay’oolijiga

Diqsiga waaweyn ee miraha mareerka galaa waa diqsi midab madow leh oo qiyaastii dherarliisu yahay ½ cm. Astaamaha lagu garto diqsigan waxaa ku jira boga hoose in uu ku leeyahay baro mad-madow oo ifa oo cirifka ku leh dhibico cad, (scutellum), iyo garbo muuqda oo leh diilimo madow oo leh qaabka xarafka “W” ama “M” (Muuqaal. 2). Diqsiga miraha mareerku ee waaweyni waxa uu aad ugu eg yahay diqsiga tufaaxa (R. pomonella) (Muuqaal.3). waxaana sidoo kale lagu khaldaa diqsiyada ankaaxka (R. cingulata) iyo diqsiyada kale ee khudrada gala (R. fausta). Si quman u garashada diqsigani waxa badanaa ku xiran tahay diilimaha garbaha, dherarka makaanka dhadiga iyo saxaaxa labka,

In kasto aan la isugu halayn karin sida astaamihii hore hadana badnaa waxaa la is yiraahdaa hadii diqsigan lagu dhex qabto  (Rhagoletis) asagoo ku dhex jira miro mareer, waxay u badan tahay in uu yahay diqsiga miraha mareerka. 

Blueberry Maggot AdultMuuqaal 2. R. mendax waaweyn (Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org).






Apple Maggot AdultMuuqaal 3. R. pomonella waaweyn (Joseph Berger, Bugwood.org).

Diqsiga miraha mareerku waxa uu ka galaa ciida xiliga qaboobaha. Koofurta-Galbeed ee gobolka Michigan, diqsiyada waaweyni waxa ay soo baxaan agagaarka bisha Juun soo bixidaasina waa ay sii socotaa ilaa iyo bisha Luulyo oo dhan iyo waliba horaanta bisha Augusto (Isaacs 2017). Guud ahaan, xiliga soo bixidu wuxuu ku soo aadaa kolka midabka miraha mareerku isbedelo. Soo bixida ka dib, diqsiga dhadiga ahi wuxuu si xayi ah u raadisaa miida ubaxa geedaha ka dhiima. Dhadigu waxa ay u baahan yihiin qiyaastii 7 ilaa iyo 10 cisho si u gaaraan xilo galmo, kolkaa ay bilaabaan in ay ugxan dhalaan. Ugxanta waxa la dhex galiyaa xuubka miraha mareerka ee bislaanaya, iyadoo hal mid uun la galinayo halkii mirba. Ugxantu waxa ay ku dilaacdaa ilaa iyo 5 cisho dixiruguna kolkaa ayuu bilaabaa quudinta (ugxan), taasoo dhameytirka koriimadooda ay ku dhex korayaan hal mir oo miraha mareerka. Kolka ay gaamuraan diqsiyadu dhulka ayey ku soo dhacaan ka dibna ciida ayey qotaan si ay u gaamuraan, halkaa ayey ku jiri inta laga gaarayo Gu’ga dambe. 


Khasaaraha

Blueberry maggots in berryMuuqaal 4. Diqsiga miraha mareerka oo quudanaya miraha mareerka (Jerry A. Payne, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org).









Diqsiyada miraha mareerku waxa ay quutaan miraha mareerka  (Muuqaal. 4), Sidaa awgeed, mirahu waxa ay noqdaan kuwa jilicsan waana ay ka soo daataan geedka. Marmarka qaarkood, astaamaha lagu garto diqsiga yar yar ee miraha cunaya ma muuqdaan ilaa iyo ka dib kolka miraha la soo goosto marmarka qaarkoodna lama arko ilaa iyo mirahu at galayaan gacanta macaamiisha.  


Maareynta

Maadaama uu diqsiga miraha mareerku aan wali laga helin beeraha ganacsiga ee Minnesota, talada hada aan soo jeedinaynaa waxa ka soo jeedaa wixii loogu arrimiyey gobolada Wisconsin iyo Michigan.

La socodka

Sticky TrapMuuqaal 5. Kaarka jaalaha ah ee xabagta leh ee “qaabka v”u sameysan V-orientation ee lagala socdo diqsiga miraha mareerka (Rufus Isaacs, MSU).
Beeraleyda miraha mareerka beertaa waa in ay la socdaan ayna isticmaalaan kaarka jaallaha ah ee xabagta leh “qaabka v” u eg “v-oriented” (Geddes et al. 1989) ee lagu laray ammonium acetate. ammonium acetate waxay moodaan diqsiyada waaweyni cunto (miid). Cilmi-baarayaasha Jaamacada (Michigan State) waxa ay ku taliyaan in la dhigo dabida ku dhex jirta dallada 1-2 asbuuc ka hor inta miraha mareerku aysan bilaabin in bislaadaan, xiliga oo dhan waa in la sii wadaa in lala socdo. 

Xakameynta Faafida

Dhowr hab ayaa la isticmaali karaa oo ay ku jiraan in daliga beerta la gooyo waqtigii loogu tala galay iyo in looga gooyo beerta miraha siyaadada u bislaada si si ugu dhaqso badan si loo yareeyo in diqsiga miraha mareerku uu ukun u dhalo ayna ukuntaasi u sii korto, beeralayda nawaaxiyo kale oo wadanka ka mid ahi waxa ay u direen dadka kala gura miraha oo hal weel ku gura miraha fiican, weel kalena ku gura wixii miro ah ee aad u bislaada kuwaa oo la daadiyo. Habkan waxaa laga yaabaa in uu si fiican ugu shaqeeyo beeraha iska yar laakiin uusan si fiican ugu shaqeyn beeraha waaweyn ee ganacsiyada waaweyni ay leeyihiin. 

Sun ku Xakameynta

Xeelada ka dambeysa sun ku xakameynta diqsiyada ku dhasha miraha mareerka waxa ay ahayd in dilo diqsiyada waaweyn ee gaamuray ka hor inta aysan (diqsiyo) bilaabin in ay ukun dhalaan, maadaama aysan jirin jid taabo gal ah oo lagu xakameyo marxaladaha diqsigu maro inta uusan gaamurin. Talooyinka iminka laguu taliyaa waxa ay qabaan in lagu buufiyo beerta sunta xasharaadka disha 5-7 maalmood gudahood kolka la qabto diqsiga ugu horeeya.

Jaamacada Gobolka Michigan (MSU) waxa ay ogaatay in tijaaboyinka goobeed la sameeyey iyadoo la adeegsanayo cadaadis sare oo cayayaan iyo markiiba labo asbuuc oo  buufin ah in kolkaa waxtarka suntaa lagu dilayey xasharaadka loo aqoonsaday in ay tahay mid aad u fiican oo wax weyn ka qabatay ciribtirka diqsiga gala miraha mareerka. Intaa waxaa dheer, Exirel waa xasharaad dile ka tirsan noocyada kiimakada ah ee la yiraa (diamide) oo la xaqiijiyey kolkii ay tijaabisay Jaamacada (MSU) inay tahay mid si fiican u xakameysa taranka diqsiga ku dhasha miraha mareerka.  

Beeralayda ka shakiya in ay dhici karto in ay ka heleen diqsiga miraha mareerka beertooda waa in ay qaadaan saamiyo ka dibna kala soo xiriiraan Mashruuca ka Digtoonaanta Dulinka ee MN  (MN Pest Alert Program), emaylka: arrest.the.pest@state.mn.us.


Tixraacyo

Geddes, P.S, J.-P.R. Le Blanc, K.L. Flanders, and H.Y. Forsythe Jr. 1989. Environ. Entomol. 18(3): 510-512.

Guédot, C. and J. van Zoeren. 2018. Blueberry Maggot. UW-Extension. Retrieved from https://hort.uwex.edu/articles/blueberry-maggot/

Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, C. Vincent, D. Polk, and F. Drummond. 2015. A Review of the Blueberry Maggot Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Integ. Pest Mngmt. 15:1. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1093/jipm/pmv010

Geddes, P.S., J.-P.R. Le Blanc, and W.N. Yule. 1987. The blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax (Diptera: Tephritidae), in eastern North America. Rev. Entomol. Quebec 32: 16–24.

Isaacs, R. Battling bugs in blueberries. 2017. Isaacs EXPO 2017 proceedings. Retrieved from http://www.isaacslab.ent.msu.edu/sfe/Images/Proceedings_Isaacs_battling_bugs_in_blueberries_2017_GLEXPO.pdf.

Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide. https://ag.purdue.edu/hla/hort/pages/sfg_sprayguide.aspx

Teixeira, and R. Isaacs. 2007. Options for organic management of blueberry maggot. Michigan State University Extension, Department of Entomology.

Revised December 1, 2018